Captain Michel Lacombe

Evidence Based Training within the European Regulatory Framework

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Captain Michel Lacombe, AF-KL Training Facilitation / ATO Safety Manager, Air France
• Boeing 777 – Captain, TRE-TRI, LIFUS Captain
• 20,000 hours total flight time
• Member of ICAO Competencies Working Group
• Member of ICAO Initiative (IPTC)
• Member of EASA RMT 599 – EBT Implementation Working Group
• Member of IATA Training & Qualification Initiative (2008-2012)
• Advisor to the French Government (Department of Transportation) on Air Crew regulations and MPL implementation


ABSTRACT
Evidence Based Training within European Regulatory Framework
For decades, the content of flight crew training programs has remained unchanged whilst aircraft design and reliability have evolved dramatically.

Pilot’s tasks are changing from flying by means of manual control, to an increased automation management and monitoring. Advanced systems increase the planes reliability and minimize faults and disturbances during normal operation. Pilots encounter many abnormal situations which have not been addressed in training.

Analysis of accidents shows that usually the root cause is not “predictable failures” but rather unexpected events (typically low probability events with high consequences). Traditional training, regulatory and IOSA compliant, can be safe, but doesn’t answer our needs. 

Competency Based Training and Evidence Based Training (EBT) projects arose from an industry-wide consensus that the Legacy recurrent system was no longer appropriate due to the complexities of modern operations and automation systems, coupled with the significant attribution of serious incidents and accidents to human factors causes.

Evidence Based Training (EBT) assumes that mastering a finite number of key competencies will allow a pilot to manage an unlimited number of potentially dangerous situations. By exposing, during training, pilots to the most relevant threats and errors, based on evidence collected in operations and training, EBT tries to identify, develop and evaluate the key competencies required by pilots to operate safely, effectively and efficiently.

Convinced of the necessity to amend the present regulations to allow this evolution, EASA launched in 2015 a Rule Making Task on how to implement EBT in the European aviation world.

The RMT 599 working group, composed on NAA and operators, proposed to amend: 
• the Annex to ED Decision 2014/017/R (Part-ORO) with the introduction of a new ORO FC 231 Evidence-based Training
• the Annex to ED decision 1178/2011 (Part-FCL).

With the help of the EASA EBT implementation check-list defined by the RMT working group, we will discuss the main ARO, ORO and FCL Part proposed modifications and present what path operators and NAA shall follow to move to EBT.